The following article was written by Masako for the July-September 1996 issue of the English-language Japan Quarterly, which is no longer published. We are posting it here because we think it offers some useful background for the never-ending debate over whether Japanese married couples should be allowed to use separate surnames for legal functions. The article is about the family registration system, the koseki, and offers not only a brief history of the document, but a summary of its use in a practical sense. Since the article was published, certain changes have taken place in the Civil Code, and we have added updates to the story where they apply. These updates are provided in brackets. However, the article itself is here recreated exactly as it appeared in 1996, so that readers can get some sense of how much progress has been made. For the most part, not much; and as Masako implies throughout the piece, a lot of the process surrounding changes made in the koseki depends on the individual civil servant who carries it out at the counter. Consequently, some of the matters explained here that were contentious at the time have become less so due to a looser attitude on the part of front-line officials; but, in theory, the koseki hasn’t changed very much since 1996, and the surname issue, which is directly linked to the bureaucratic primacy of the koseki, is just as contentious now as it was when the article was written, if not more so. For a detailed and very readable discussion of the legal aspects of the koseki, we recommend the 2016 series that Colin P.A. Jones wrote for The Japan Times. We should also mention that Sato Bunmei, who talked to Masako at length for this article and was probably the most knowledgeable person at the time about the koseki, has since died.Read More
About a year ago, many people in our part of Chiba Prefecture were still struggling with loss of electricity after two typhoons plowed through the peninsula in rapid succession. Our house was lucky and only lost power intermittently for short periods. Not far from where we live, however, there were some households who didn’t have power for more than a month, and the local authorities, not to mention the regional power providers, seemed at a loss as to what to do about it. Moreover, they didn’t seem sure of how to prevent such problems from recurring in the future, seeing how, with climate change and all, it was likely that these kinds of extreme weather events would happen again and perhaps more frequently.
Extended blackouts are, of course, a serious matter. In addition to loss of lighting function, it means your refrigerator won’t work and thus all your food contained inside will spoil; it means no air conditioning, which could be a big problem at the height of summer; it means no television, which provides emergency information in times when disasters like this strike; and it means no cell phones because no recharging capability. These are all problems that can occur to anyone in the path of a typhoon, but in the cases of the people mentioned above it could be even more serious. We live in an area where a lot of infrastructure is not available. Most of us get our water from wells, and so we need pumps that are run by electricity, so that means no water for bathing and toilets. We also aren’t hooked up to natural gas lines, so unless you get propane deliveries, it probably means you run your household on an all-electric system, so that means no cooking or hot baths/showers.
At least one local municipality has taken preliminary action to be more prepared, and in doing so may spark a trend that should be promoted nationwide. In the city of Sosa, on the Pacific coast, a group of environmental activists has set up a “solar sharing” operation that started out with farmers who allowed the group to install solar panels on tall stanchions above their fields. The panels absorb sunlight, but are far enough from the ground to allow peripheral sunlight to reach most of the ground underneath them, so the fields still produce crops. The farmers still sell their wares, and the sharing group sells excess electricity from the solar setup to the local power company and puts the revenue back into the local government, which uses the money to promote solar energy on a household-by-household basis. According to an article in Harbor Business Online, Sosa seems to be the only local government carrying out such a program. What’s particularly interesting is that, besides the money made from selling the electricity, the program has no relationship with any major power companies, which makes sense. Electricity providers are very concerned about people generating their own power for their own use, since it means using less electricity from the grid, which they control. However, after last year’s typhoons, many residents of Chiba have realized they can’t count on the grid and its overlords to guarantee service in the event of an emergency.Read More
We recently opened a Twitter account under the catforehead moniker. The Twitter handle is @catforehead1. We will use it to tweet links to English or Japanese articles and other items on the internet related to housing in Japan. Please follow us and tell your friends about it. Part of the reason for starting a Twitter account is to attract more attention to this site as we look for a publisher for our book. If anyone could help us in that department, please feel free to contact us through this blog or through the Twitter account. Thanks.
Here is this month’s Home Truths column, which is about moving house. Yesterday, we read in the newspaper an item that would have been suitable for the column but it was too late to include it. The Japan Trucking Association has issued a press release warning consumers that from mid-March to early April, moving companies are expecting a huge amount of demand–one-third of demand for the full year, in fact–and urges anyone who is thinking of moving during that time to put off the move until later. In our experience, people usually move house because they have to, and have to move during a certain period of time due to specific circumstances, such as a new job, new school year, or the availability of a rental or purchased residence. In any case, March 3 seems way too late to make such a warning, but, then again, anyone who is planning to move during the period described and hasn’t made arrangements yet probably deserves whatever difficulties arise when they finally do try to make arrangements. But in the end, you can always rent a truck and do it yourself, which we’ve done many times.
Japanese apartment complexes often have pretentious, unwieldy names that are meant to add a touch of cosmopolitanism to otherwise nondescript residences; something you might expect from an industry that managed to convince people to adopt the English word “mansion” for condominiums. Earlier this week when we went over to Ogikubo in Tokyo’s western Suginami Ward to inspect the new UR apartments that are starting to accept applications for tenants I couldn’t quite make out the name, which sounded French, and I neglected to write down the romaji iteration after we got there, though I do remember is started with a “C” and had an “X” and some consecutive combination of “E” and “I.” Maybe a “U,” too; but whatever it was I couldn’t pronounce it on sight. Having returned home I see it rendered in katakana as シャレール. So let’s just drop the whole thing and call them the Ogikubo UR apartments. Read More
One of the Aso administration’s economic initiatives that was retained by the Democratic Party of Japan when it took over the government last year was an allowance for people who had lost their housing as a direct result of having lost their jobs, because, in most cases, the place they were living in was either owned or subsidized by their employers. The DPJ plan originally earmarked ¥70 billion for this allowance, with an additional ¥30 billion for it in the new supplemental budget. Read More
Six of the ten elderly people who died in a fire in a Gunma Prefecture nursing care facility last March had been sent to the facility by the Sumida Ward welfare office. Since the fire, the press has talked a lot about this practice of sending poor old people out of cities, where they can’t afford public facilities, to rural areas where the land values and thus the facilities themselves are cheaper. The Tokyo government has carried out an investigation into how to solve this problem, and they’ve come up with an idea.
The Tokyo government wants to increase the number of single rooms in so-called “care houses” by 2,400. Care houses are privately run housing complexes where single seniors–meaning people over 60 years of age–live by themselves. The facilities have baths and serve meals. The Tokyo government has found that rent for these care houses is prohibitively expensive since land agency regulations state that each room of a care house must be at least 20 square meters. The Tokyo government estimates that a 20 square meter room costs about ¥180,000, which is beyond the means of the government itself if it is footing the bill for indigent seniors. So they have asked the land ministry to reduce the minimum standard to 7 square meters, which is the size of a 4.5-tatami room. This, the government estimates, would cost about ¥100,000. In other words, you pay about half for a room that is only one-third as big.
As of 2007 there were only 259 care houses in all of Japan comprising 86,000 resident seniors. Fifty were in Tokyo.
According to the government, new housing starts in 2009 were the lowest they’ve been in 45 years. At 788,410 units, it was also the first time since 1967 that the number of new housing starts fell below a million, and the 27.9 percent year-on-year drop was the highest since 1974.
Meanwhile, the used housing and reform markets are doing quite well. The used housing sales company Livita, a subsidiary of Tokyo Electric, recently told Asahi Shimbun that about a year ago they noticed a large spike of interest in older homes that has only increased since then. Part of Livita’s business is to buy company housing complexes that are not longer occupied and convert them for sale. A potential buyer chooses a unit and then instructs the company as to how he or she wants it to be remodeled. Read More
On Jan. 26 the Supreme Court decided in favor of a condominium management association that wanted to charge a nominal fee to non-resident owners of units in a large complex in Osaka. The decision overturned a lower court ruling that had supported the owners, who refused to pay the fee by saying that it was unfair. The judges in the higher court said “no,” the fee was perfectly legal and proper. Read More